Jatiluwih Rice Terrace and Balinese Subak System
The cultural landscape of Bali province : The Subak system as a manifestation of the Tri Hita Karana philosophy consist of supreme Water Temple Ulun danu Batur and Lake Batur, subak landscape of Pakerisan Watershed, Subak Landscape of Catur Angga Batukaru, and Royal Temple of Taman ayun has been inscribe upon the World Heritage list of the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, Inscription on this list confirms the outstanding universal value of a cultural or natural property which deserves protection for the benefit of all humanity.
subak, harmony philosophy in the agricultural community of the island of the Gods ( Balinese Tradition )
The subak system has become one of the characteristics of bali province, the irrigation system that develops under the influence of strong Hindu teachings is a form of local wisdom that makes farmer communities compatible with natural to obtain optimal yields.
subak has also received recognition from international agricultural experts. one of them is John S, Ambar (1990 ) who recognizes Subak as the principle of superior and advanced irrigation system remains sustainable in the culture of rural commonities in Bali for centuries and continues to this day.
Subak is a community self-help system that functions to regulate the distribution of irrigation flows that irrigate every plot of rice fields. This system is managed in groups and storied with specific division of roles for each member.
In Subak organizations, there are several devices know. The tool in Subak are Pekaseh ( Subak Chairperson ), Petajuh ( Vice Pekaseh ), Penyakat ( Clerks ), Petengen ( Mercenaries ), Kasinoman ( Courier ), and several others. In addition, it is known that there are sub-groups consisting of 20 - 40 farmers called Munduk, which are chaired by an advocate.
In additional to its structural system, subak also has a peculiarity in terms of the ritual ceremonies that take place in it. In Subak there are known rituals that apply individually and in group ritual ( Level of munduk / tempek and subak ).
Individual rituals include ngendangin ( done at the first time hoeing ), Ngawiwit ( when the farmer sows seeds ), Mamula ( when planting ), Neduh ( when the rice is 1 month old so as not to be attacked by the disease ), Binkunkung ( when the rice begins to contain ), Nyangket ( at harvest ), and Manteni ( when rice is stored in the barn ), at the tempeh lavel, it is known as group rituals such as mapya toya, mecaru, and ngusaba.
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